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Substation Automation


Future-proofing Substations with Ethernet Technologies

Nine steps to help develop a future-proof infrastructure for your substation BY TIM WALLAERT, Belden Substations with Ethernet technologies: the convergence of industrial Ethernet technologies, Smart Grid practices and the increased need for security has provided an opportunity for power utilities...

Substation Protection


Protective Relay Frustrations

Solving misoperation with line parameter measurements BY WILL KNAPEK, OMICRON USA Between 80 to 90 percent of all power system faults involve ground. Many protective relaying schemes depend on ground distance protection to accurately sense and locate ground faults on multi-terminal sub-transmission...

Breakers & Relays


Power Factor Testing of Circuit Breakers

Detecting contamination and deterioration in SF6 breakers to ensure longevity BY LINDA NOWAK, Doble Engineering Company The purpose of “Doble testing”, or power factor testing, SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) circuit breakers is to detect the presence of contamination and/or deterioration of the...

Substation Testing & Maintenance


Utilizing Fault Resistance to Test Distance Relays

Taking power grid protection to an all-new level BY JASON BUNEO & RENE AGUILAR, Megger The testing of distance relays has evolved from testing simple electromechanical relays to the newest modern microprossesor relays. Most modern relays employ advanced algorithms that not only compare the...

Physical Security & Monitoring


Animal Mitigation for Electric Utilities

Prevent animal- and bird-caused outages to improve reliability BY MARTY NILES, Cantega Technologies Utilities in North America are under enormous pressure from regulators, customers, and investors to improve reliability performance. Many of the mergers and acquisitions of utilities around North...

Lightning Protection


Grounding System Maintenance Guide

Grounding systems are a crucially important component of any power supply system, because they directly impact public and employee safety, supply system reliability, power quality and life expectancy of power equipment. In spite of their crucial role in safe, reliable, and economic operation of...

Electrical Substations

view of substation at night

An Overview of Substation Maintenance: Its Evolution and Key Testing Practices

As electrical systems age, operating costs increase while reliability dwindles. Given most utilities and industrial facilities are highly capital intensive and have limited financial and other resources to make wholesale equipment replacements, regular maintenance is critical for controlling the symptoms of aging.
Maintenance is a key part of lifecycle asset management. Preserving equipment health maximizes the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of substation assets, including transformers, circuit breakers, protection equipment, CTs, PTs, CCVTs, batteries, transmission lines, and...

Electrical Substations Articles